Intrinsic ADE: The Dark Side of Antibody Dependent Enhancement During Dengue Infection

Rohan Narayan, Shashank Tripathi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


Dengue fever is an Aedes mosquito-borne illness caused by any one of the four different dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (1–4) and manifests in the form of symptoms ranging from mild or asymptomatic to severe disease with vascular leakage, leading to shock, and viral hemorrhagic syndrome. Increased risk of severe disease occurs during secondary infection with a virus serotype distinct from that of prior dengue infection. This occurs by antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection, wherein sub-neutralizing antibodies against the virus particles opsonize dengue virus entry via formation of immune complexes that interact with fragment crystallizable gamma receptors (FcγR) on monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages. The ADE phenomenon has two components: Extrinsic and Intrinsic ADE. While extrinsic ADE contributes to enhanced virus entry, intrinsic ADE results in heightened virus production by inhibition of type1 interferon and activation of interleukin-10 biosynthesis, thereby favoring a Th2 type immune response. Intrinsic ADE has greater contribution in enhancing Dengue replication as compared to extrinsic ADE. Detailed elucidation of intrinsic ADE during secondary dengue infection can increase our understanding of DENV-pathogenesis and aid in the development of host-targeting antivirals. Here we review literature focusing on intrinsic factors contributing to severe dengue pathology and suggest possible avenues for further research.

Original languageEnglish
Article number580096
JournalFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
StatePublished - 2 Oct 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • antibody dependent enhancement (ADE)
  • dengue
  • extrinsic ADE
  • intrinsic ADE
  • pathogenesis


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