Background. We sought to identify transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) predictors of early reoperation for recurrent aortic regurgitation (AR) after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in patients undergoing repair for congenital aortic valve disease. Methods. We analyzed post-CPB TEEs in patients with congenital aortic valve disease undergoing repair for predominant AR. Case patients underwent reoperation for recurrent AR within 2 years, whereas control patients were free from reoperation for more than 3 years. Results. Case patients (n = 22; median time to reoperation 0.3 years) and control patients (n = 22; median freedom from reoperation ≥4.4 years) were similar for demographic characteristics, aortic dimensions, and preoperative AR grade. Among post-CPB TEE variables, univariate logistic regression analysis identified shorter coaptation height (odds ratio [OR] for 1-mm increase 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54 to 0.95; p = 0.02), decreased ratio of coaptation height to annulus diameter (OR for a 5% decrease 1.37, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.77; p = 0.02), and increased percentage difference (%diff) between longest and shortest coaptation lengths in a short-axis view (OR for 10% increase 1.84, 95% CI: 1.15 to 2.92; p = 0.01) as risk factors for early reoperation for recurrent AR. Multivariable analysis identified %diff in short-axis coaptation lengths as the strongest post-CPB TEE predictor (area under receiver operator curve = 0.743). The sensitivity and specificity of a %diff of 50% were 0.45 and 0.91, whereas a %diff of 30% had a sensitivity of 0.75 and specificity of 0.67. Conclusions. Coaptation asymmetry, measured as increased %diff in short-axis coaptation lengths on post-CPB TEE, is associated with early reoperation for recurrent AR after congenital valve repair.