Intervening With Smoking Parents of Inpatients to Reduce Exposure: The INSPIRE Randomized Controlled Trial

Karen M. Wilson, Angela Moss, Michelle Lowary, Jacqueline Holstein, Jessica Gambino, Elizabeth Juarez-Colunga, Gwendolyn S. Kerby, Jonathan D. Klein, Melbourne Hovell, Jonathan P. Winickoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Hospitalized children have high rates of tobacco smoke exposure; parents who smoke may be receptive to interventions during their child's hospitalization. Objective: We tested the efficacy of a smoking cessation intervention for parents of hospitalized children. Methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blind clinical trial from 12/14-5/18 at the Children's Hospital Colorado. Hospitalized children who had a parent who smoked tobacco were eligible. Intervention: Intervention participants received motivational interviewing sessions, 2 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy; both groups received referral to the Quitline Consenting parents completed a questionnaire; urine was collected from the child for measurement of cotinine. Our primary outcome was: 1) increase in reporting “no one is allowed to smoke anywhere” in the home (smoke-free home rule). Additional outcomes included: 2) change in child's cotinine from baseline to 1 year, and 3) parental quitting at 1 year. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and t tests for bivariable data, and multivariable logistic and linear regression. Results: Of 1641 eligible families approached, 252 were randomized (15%); 149 families had follow-up data at 12 months (59%). In the adjusted analysis, there was no difference between the groups in smoke free home rules, or child cotinine level; in an intention-to-treat analysis, 15% in the intervention group versus 8% of controls reported quit (p=0.07). Conclusions: A smoking cessation intervention can be delivered to parents of hospitalized children. While hospitalization provides an opportunity to help parents quit smoking, more efficient and effective engagement strategies are needed to optimize tobacco control success.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)997-1005
Number of pages9
JournalAcademic Pediatrics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • clinical trials
  • secondhand tobacco smoke exposure
  • smoking cessation


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