Intercontinental validation of a clinical prediction model for predicting 90-day and 2-year mortality in an Israeli cohort of 2033 patients with a femoral neck fracture aged 65 or above

Jacobien H.F. Oosterhoff, Aditya V. Karhade, Olivier Q. Groot, Joseph H. Schwab, Marilyn Heng, Eyal Klang, Dan Prat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Mortality prediction in elderly femoral neck fracture patients is valuable in treatment decision-making. A previously developed and internally validated clinical prediction model shows promise in identifying patients at risk of 90-day and 2-year mortality. Validation in an independent cohort is required to assess the generalizability; especially in geographically distinct regions. Therefore we questioned, is the SORG Orthopaedic Research Group (SORG) femoral neck fracture mortality algorithm externally valid in an Israeli cohort to predict 90-day and 2-year mortality? Methods: We previously developed a prediction model in 2022 for estimating the risk of mortality in femoral neck fracture patients using a multicenter institutional cohort of 2,478 patients from the USA. The model included the following input variables that are available on clinical admission: age, male gender, creatinine level, absolute neutrophil, hemoglobin level, international normalized ratio (INR), congestive heart failure (CHF), displaced fracture, hemiplegia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and beta-blocker use. To assess the generalizability, we used an intercontinental institutional cohort from the Sheba Medical Center in Israel (level I trauma center), queried between June 2008 and February 2022. Generalizability of the model was assessed using discrimination, calibration, Brier score, and decision curve analysis. Results: The validation cohort included 2,033 patients, aged 65 years or above, that underwent femoral neck fracture surgery. Most patients were female 64.8% (n = 1317), the median age was 81 years (interquartile range = 75–86), and 80.4% (n = 1635) patients sustained a displaced fracture (Garden III/IV). The 90-day mortality was 9.4% (n = 190) and 2-year mortality was 30.0% (n = 610). Despite numerous baseline differences, the model performed acceptably to the validation cohort on discrimination (c-statistic 0.67 for 90-day, 0.67 for 2-year), calibration, Brier score, and decision curve analysis. Conclusions: The previously developed SORG femoral neck fracture mortality algorithm demonstrated good performance in an independent intercontinental population. Current iteration should not be relied on for patient care, though suggesting potential utility in assessing patients at low risk for 90-day or 2-year mortality. Further studies should evaluate this tool in a prospective setting and evaluate its feasibility and efficacy in clinical practice. The algorithm can be freely accessed: Level of evidence: Level III, Prognostic study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1545-1553
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Femoral neck fracture
  • Geriatric trauma
  • Hip fracture
  • Machine learning
  • Mortality
  • Prediction model


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