Objective: To describe adaptations necessary for effective use of direct-to-consumer (DTC) cameras in an inpatient setting, from the perspective of health care workers. Methods: Our qualitative study included semi-structured interviews and focus groups with clinicians, information technology (IT) personnel, and health system leaders affiliated with the Mount Sinai Health System. All participants either worked in a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) unit with DTC cameras or participated in the camera implementation. Three researchers coded the transcripts independently and met weekly to discuss and resolve discrepancies. Abiding by inductive thematic analysis, coders revised the codebook until they reached saturation. All transcripts were coded in Dedoose using the final codebook. Results: Frontline clinical staff, IT personnel, and health system leaders (N = 39) participated in individual interviews and focus groups in November 2020-April 2021. Our analysis identified 5 areas for effective DTC camera use: Technology, patient monitoring, workflows, interpersonal relationships, and infrastructure. Participants described adaptations created to optimize camera use and opportunities for improvement necessary for sustained use. Non-COVID-19 patients tended to decline participation. Discussion: Deploying DTC cameras on inpatient units required adaptations in many routine processes. Addressing consent, 2-way communication issues, patient privacy, and messaging about video monitoring could help facilitate a nimble rollout. Implementation and dissemination of inpatient video monitoring using DTC cameras requires input from patients and frontline staff. Conclusions: Given the resources and time it takes to implement a usable camera solution, other health systems might benefit from creating task forces to investigate their use before the next crisis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1618-1630
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2022


  • COVID-19
  • electronic personal protective equipment (ePPE)
  • health care worker wellbeing
  • patient isolation
  • patient safety
  • telemedicine


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