Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. Among the HIV-related kidney diseases, HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a rapidly progressive renal disease characterized by collapsing focal glomerulosclerosis (GS), microcystic tubular dilation, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Although the incidence of end-stage renal disease due to HIVAN has dramatically decreased with the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy, the prevalence of CKD continues to increase in HIV-positive individuals. Recent studies have highlighted the role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in driving kidney disease progression through the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and selective ASK-1 inhibitor GS-444217 was recently shown to reduce kidney injury and disease progression in various experimental models. Therefore we examined the efficacy of ASK1 antagonism by GS-444217 in the attenuation of HIVAN in Tg26 mice. Methods: GS-444217-supplemented rodent chow was administered in Tg26 mice at 4 weeks of age when mild GS and proteinuria were already established. After 6 weeks of treatment, the kidney function assessment and histological analyses were performed and compared between age- and gender-matched control Tg26 and GS-444217-treated Tg26 mice. Results: GS-444217 attenuated the development of GS, podocyte loss, tubular injury, interstitial inflammation and renal fibrosis in Tg26 mice. These improvements were accompanied by a marked reduction in albuminuria and improved renal function. Taken together, GS-4442217 attenuated the full spectrum of HIVAN pathology in Tg26 mice. Conclusions: ASK1 signaling cascade is central to the development of HIVAN in Tg26 mice. Our results suggest that the select inhibition of ASK1 could be a potential adjunctive therapy for the treatment of HIVAN.