Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)/coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, global sequencing efforts have led in the field of inborn errors of immunity, and inspired particularly by previous research on life-threatening influenza, they have revealed that known and novel inborn errors affecting type I interferon immunity underlie critical COVID-19 in up to 5% of cases. In addition, neutralizing autoantibodies against type I interferons have been identified in up to 20% of patients with critical COVID-19 who are older than 80 years and 20% of fatal cases, with a higher prevalence in men and individuals older than 70 years. Also, inborn errors impairing regulation of type I interferon responses and RNA degradation have been found as causes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, a life-threatening hyperinflammatory condition complicating otherwise mild initial SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and young adults. Better understanding of these immunologic mechanisms can aid in designing treatments for severe COVID-19, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, long COVID, and neuro-COVID.
- multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children
- type I interferon