Objective: This study was undertaken to examine recent trends in the outcomes of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing infrainguinal bypass grafting (IBG) with autogenous vein. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all IBGs performed on patients with ESRD at a single tertiary care institution during the interval 1993 to 1999 was undertaken. The comparison groups consisted of concurrent series of patients with elevated creatinine (creatinine level > 1.2 mg/dL) and patients with normal renal function undergoing IBG. Procedural variables, angiographic runoff scores, and extent of tissue necrosis at presentation were correlated with outcome. Categoric parameters were compared with χ2 analysis; rates were computed with life-table analysis. Results: Of an overall cohort of 622 IBGs performed during this interval, 78 IBGs (12.5%) were performed on 60 patients with ESRD, with a perioperative mortality rate of 1.3% that was comparable to controls. All reconstructions in the ESRD cohort were for limb salvage indications. Four-year survival, primary, assisted primary, and secondary patency rates for the ESRD group were 51% ± 9%, 60% ± 11%, 86% ± 5%, and 86% ± 5%, respectively; these were not statistically different from the control groups. Limb salvage in the ESRD group was 77% ± 6% at 4 years and was significantly less then either the elevated creatinine (92% ± 4%; P < .02) or the normal renal function group (90% ± 2%: P < .02). Of 16 amputations in the ESRD group, nine were performed in limbs with patent grafts. The only absolute predictor of limb loss despite a patent graft was the presence of a heel ulcer more than 4 cm in diameter. Age, runoff score of the International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery/Society for Vascular Surgery, isolated tibial bypass graft, and location of distal anastomosis were not predictive of hemodynamic failure. Conclusions: Patients with ESRD constitute an increasing proportion of patients undergoing IBG in a tertiary care setting. Four-year survival, perioperative mortality, and graft patency rates are similar to patients with normal renal function and support an aggressive approach to this population. Major limb amputation despite a patent graft remains a problem of unique frequency in patients with ESRD. Adequate predictors of hemodynamic failure of IBG in this group do not exist, although a heel ulcer more than 4 cm may indicate an unsalvageable foot.