Influenza A virus-generated small RNAs regulate the switch from transcription to replication

Jasmine T. Perez, Andrew Varble, Ravi Sachidanandam, Ivan Zlatev, Muthiah Manoharan, Adolfo García-Sastre, Benjamin R. TenOever

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

151 Scopus citations

Abstract

The discovery of regulatory small RNAs continues to reshape paradigms in bothmolecular biology and virology. Here we describe examples of influenza A virus-derived small viral RNAs (svRNAs). svRNAs are 22-27 nt in length and correspond to the 5′ end of each of the viral genomic RNA (vRNA) segments. Expression of svRNA correlates with the accumulation of vRNA and a bias in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity from transcription toward genome replication. Synthesis of svRNA requires the RdRp, nucleoprotein and the nuclear export protein NS2. In addition, svRNA is detectable during replication of various influenza A virus subtypes across multiple host species and associates physically with the RdRp. We demonstrate that depletion of svRNA has a minimal impact on mRNA and complementary vRNA (cRNA) but results in a dramatic loss of vRNA in a segment-specific manner. We propose that svRNA triggers the viral switch from transcription to replication through interactions with the viral polymerase machinery. Taken together, the discovery of svRNA redefines the mechanistic switch of influenza virus transcription/replication and provides a potential target for broad-range, anti-influenza virus-based therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11525-11530
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume107
Issue number25
DOIs
StatePublished - 22 Jun 2010

Keywords

  • MicroRNA
  • RNA dependent RNA polymerase
  • Replicase
  • Replication switch
  • Transcriptase

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