Infections After Adoption of Antibiogram-directed Prophylaxis and Intracorporeal Urinary Diversion for Robot-assisted Radical Cystectomy

Jordan M. Rich, Evan B. Garden, Juan Sebastian Arroyave, Yuval Elkun, Daniel Ranti, John L. Pfail, Rebecca Klahr, Olamide O. Omidele, Victoria Adams-Sommer, Gopi Patel, Sarah Hall Schaefer, Conner Brown, Ketan Badani, Etienne Lavallee, Reza Mehrazin, Kyrollis Attalla, Nikhil Waingankar, Peter Wiklund, John P. Sfakianos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has significantly decreased the morbidity associated with radical cystectomy. However, infectious complications including sepsis, urinary tract (UTIs), wound (WIs), and intra-abdominal (AIs) infections remain common. Objective: To assess whether intracorporeal urinary diversion (ICUD) and antibiogram-directed antimicrobial prophylaxis would decrease infections after robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). Design, setting, and participants: A retrospective analysis was performed of a prospectively maintained database of patients undergoing RARC between 2014 and 2022 at a tertiary care institution, identifying two groups based on adherence to a prospectively implemented modified ERAS protocol for RARC: modified-ERAS—ICUD and antibiogram-directed ampicillin-sulbactam, gentamicin, and fluconazole prophylaxis were utilized (from January 2019 to present time), and unmodified-ERAS—extracorporeal urinary diversion (UD) and guideline-recommended cephalosporin-based prophylaxis regimen were utilized (from November 2014 to June 2018). Patients receiving other prophylaxis regimens were excluded. Intervention: ICUD and antibiogram-directed infectious prophylaxis. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The primary outcome was UTIs within 30 and 90 d postoperatively. The secondary outcomes were WIs, AIs, and sepsis within 30 and 90 d postoperatively, and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) within 90 d postoperatively. Results and limitations: A total of 396 patients were studied (modified-ERAS: 258 [65.2%], unmodified-ERAS: 138 [34.8%]). UD via a neobladder was more common in the modified-ERAS cohort; all other intercohort demographic differences were not statistically different. Comparing cohorts, modified-ERAS had significantly reduced rates of 30-d (7.8% vs 15.9%, p = 0.027) and 90-d UTIs (11.2% vs 25.4%, p = 0.001), and 30-d WIs (1.2% vs. 8.7%, p < 0.001); neither group had a WI after 30 d. Rates of AIs, sepsis, and CDI did not differ between groups. On multivariate regression, the modified-ERAS protocol correlated with a reduced risk of UTIs and WIs (all p < 0.01). The primary limitation is the retrospective study design. Conclusions: Utilization of ICUD and antibiogram-based prophylaxis correlates with significantly decreased UTIs and WIs after RARC. Patient summary: In this study of infections after robotic radical cystectomy for bladder cancer, we found that intracorporeal (performed entirely inside the body) urinary diversion and an institution-specific antibiogram-directed antibiotic prophylaxis regimen led to fewer urinary tract infections and wound infections at our institution.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Urology Focus
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

Keywords

  • Antibiogram
  • Bladder cancer
  • Infection
  • Intracorporeal urinary diversion
  • Radical cystectomy
  • Robotic surgery

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