Infection with HIV type 1 group M non-B subtypes in individuals living in New York City

Jacqueline M. Achkar, Sherri T. Burda, Frank A.J. Konings, Mateusz M. Urbanski, Constance A.U. Williams, Dorothee Seifen, Martha N. Kahirimbanyi, Mary Vogler, Mark Parta, Helene C. Lupatkin, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Phillipe N. Nyambi

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19 Scopus citations


Objective: To document infection with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) group M non-B subtypes in individuals living in New York City. Design: From October 1999 through April 2003, HIV-1-seropositive individuals were selected from 3 clinics in New York City based on having risk factors for infection with HIV-1 non-B subtypes. Methods: HIV-1 RNA was extracted from plasma samples, and partial gag, pol, or env genes were amplified by PCR analysis. The infecting HIV-1 group M subtype was determined based on results of either heteroduplex mobility assay or sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results: Ninety-seven subjects were enrolled in the study. Of the 97 subjects, 91 (94%) were selected based on having emigrated from a non-European country, while 6 (6%) were native United States citizens. Subtypes were successfully determined in 53 (55%) of the 97 plasma samples tested. The subtypes in 2 plasma samples were unclassifiable. HIV-1 infections were classified as those due to the following group M subtypes: A (n = 4; 7%), B (n = 12; 22%), C (n = 8; 15%), F (n = 2; 4%), CRF01_AE-like (n = 7; 13%), CRF02_AG-like (n = 19; 34%), an intersubtype recombinant form G gag/Aenv (n = 1; 2%), and unclassifiable viruses (n = 2; 4%). Conclusion: This study reveals infection with a broad variety of HIV-1 group M subtypes mostly in the immigrant population of New York City as well as how several non-B subtypes are being introduced into the United States.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)835-844
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • HIV genotypes
  • HIV type 1 (HIV-1)
  • Immigrants


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