Induction of neutralizing antibodies and mucosal IgA through intranasal immunization with the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein fused with the type IIb E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin A subunit

He Chin Hsieh, Chung Chu Chen, Pin Han Chou, Wen Chun Liu, Suh Chin Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infections had led to the COVID-19 pandemic which has a significant impact on global public health and the economy. The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 contains the receptor binding domain (RBD) which binds to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Numerous RBD-based vaccines have been developed and recently focused on the induction of neutralizing antibodies against the immune evasive Omicron BQ.1.1 and XBB.1.5 subvariants. In this preclinical study, we reported the use of a direct fusion of the type IIb Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin A subunit with SARS CoV-2 RBD protein (RBD-LTA) as an intranasal vaccine candidate. The results showed that intranasal immunization with the RBD-LTA fusion protein in BALB/c mice elicited potent neutralizing antibodies against the Wuhan-Hu-1 and several SARS-CoV-2 variants as well as the production of IgA antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs). Furthermore, the heterologous RBD representing the same strains used in the bivalent mRNA vaccine were used as a second-dose RBD-LTA/RBD protein booster after bivalent mRNA vaccination. The results showed that the neutralizing antibody titers elicited by the intranasal bivalent RBD-LTA/RBD protein booster were similar to the intramuscular bivalent mRNA booster, but the RBD-specific IgA titers in sera and BALFs significantly increased. Overall, this preclinical study suggests that the RBD-LTA fusion protein could be a promising candidate as a mucosal booster COVID-19 vaccine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105752
JournalAntiviral Research
Volume220
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Booster
  • Heat-labile enterotoxin a
  • Intranasal
  • RBD
  • mRNA vaccine

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Induction of neutralizing antibodies and mucosal IgA through intranasal immunization with the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein fused with the type IIb E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin A subunit'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this