In an attempt to identify potential markers of steroid-resistance in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) we evaluated intra-graft gene expression of IκBα, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and angiotensinogen in 60 biopsies from 27 pediatric renal transplant recipients. Intra-graft NF-κB expression was significantly elevated in recurrent FSGS (R-FSGS) (218.3 + 55.6 ag/fg versus NON-FSGS 121.1 + 19.9, P=0.04) but not in acute rejection. NF-κB:IκBα ratios were higher in cadaveric donor versus living related donor recipients (15.7 + 2.8 vs. 8.8 + 1.3, respectively, P=0.015), and in African-American versus Caucasian recipients (15.6 + 2.9 vs. 9.1 + 1.3, respectively, P=0.03). Intra-graft angiotensinogen gene expression was significantly elevated in R-FSGS (30.5 + 8.8 ag/fg R-FSGS vs. 16.0 + 4.7 NON-FSGS, P=0.009). We conclude that increased NF-κB and angiotensinogen gene expression are associated with R-FSGS. Increased NF-κB:IκBα ratios are associated with cadaveric donor recipients and African-American race.