Inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) are generally considered to be rare monogenic disorders of the immune system that cause immunodeficiency, autoinflammation, autoimmunity, allergy and/or cancer. Here, we discuss evidence that IEIs need not be rare disorders or exclusively affect the immune system. Namely, an increasing number of patients with IEIs present with severe dysregulations of the central nervous, digestive, renal or pulmonary systems. Current challenges in the diagnosis of IEIs that result from the segregated practice of specialized medicine could thus be mitigated, in part, by immunogenetic approaches. Starting with a brief historical overview of IEIs, we then discuss the technological advances that are facilitating the immunogenetic study of IEIs, progress in understanding disease penetrance in IEIs, the expanding universe of IEIs affecting distal organ systems and the future of genetic, biochemical and medical discoveries in this field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)184-195
Number of pages12
JournalNature Reviews Genetics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2024


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