The Th17 subset is preferentially depleted as compared to the Th1 subset in chronically HIV-infected patients, even after successful antiretroviral therapy. In this study, we have established an in vitro system utilizing primary human CD4 T cell cultures that recapitulates the dramatic loss of Th17 response upon HIV-1 infection that is accompanied with a less profound Th1 decrease. With this experimental system, we showed that blocking viral entry with CCR5 ligands or TAK779 reduced the infection and enhanced Th17 response but not Th1 response. Antiretroviral drug 3TC (lamivudine), given at the time of infection, completely prevented the loss of Th17 and Th1 responses but was ineffective when given after infection was already established. Only when Th17 differentiation cytokines were given along with 3TC to the cultures with established HIV infection was Th17 response fully restored and virus replication kept suppressed. Finally, a significant increase of Th17 response was achieved in peripheral lymphocytes of HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy after treatment with Th17 differentiation cytokines. These data demonstrate the presence of CD4 T cells remaining capable of mounting Th17 response during HIV infection and indicate the potential use of immunotherapeutic modalities to supplement antiretroviral drugs for restoring Th17 response in chronically HIV-infected patients.