Although clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are improving, the long-term risk for target vessel failure remains concerning. Although the application of intravascular imaging and physiological indexes significantly improves outcomes, their routine use in practice remains limited. Nevertheless, merely using these modalities is not enough, and to truly improve patient outcomes, optimal intravascular dimensions with minimal vascular injury should be targeted. When assessing post-PCI results using either type of physiological or imaging technology, a broad spectrum of stent- and vessel-related anomalies can be expected. As not all of these issues warrant treatment, a profound knowledge of what to expect and how to recognize and when to treat these intraluminal problems is needed. Additionally, promising new modalities such as angiography-derived coronary physiology and hybrid imaging catheters are becoming available. The authors provide an overview of the currently available tools and techniques to define suboptimal PCI and when to apply these technologies to improve outcomes.
- intravascular imaging
- target vessel failure