Background: This study aims to evaluate the impact of liver fibrosis severity on prognosis following liver resection among HBV-HCC patients. Methods: Data were extracted from a prospective database of 189 HBV-HCC patients treated at Mount Sinai between 1995 and 2008. Fibrosis staging of each surgical resection specimen using the modified Ishak method was performed by a single liver pathologist.Results:A wide range of Ishak fibrosis stage was observed among this patient population, with 29% having established cirrhosis (Ishak stage 6). Ishak stage 6 was independently associated with poor overall and recurrence-free survival. In patients with Ishak stage 1-5, Ishak stage did not affect survival; rather, tumour size was associated with poor overall survival, and tumour size, histologic activity index and serum AFP>20 ng ml-1 were associated with poor recurrence-free survival. In patients with Ishak stage 6, poorly differentiated histology and tumour size were associated with poor overall survival, and tumour size was associated with poor recurrence-free survival. Conclusion: HBV-HCC develops with varying degrees of underlying liver fibrosis; however, progressive liver fibrosis does not affect the outcomes following resection until cirrhosis is reached. Established cirrhosis, as defined histologically by Ishak stage 6, is an independent predictor of poor overall and recurrence-free survival among these patients.