Impact of ischemia on left atrial remodeling and dysfunction in swine models of mitral regurgitation

Tomoki Sakata, Renata Mazurek, Spyros A. Mavropoulos, Francisco J. Romeo, Anjali J. Ravichandran, Shin Watanabe, Taro Kariya, Kiyotake Ishikawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Left atrial (LA) dysfunction is one of the predictive factors of worse outcomes after mitral valve surgery for mitral regurgitation (MR). We aimed to investigate the effect of MR etiology on progression of LA remodeling in swine MR models. MR was induced in 14 Yorkshire pigs using catheter-based procedures. Seven pigs underwent simultaneous occlusions of the left circumflex artery and the diagonal branch, which resulted in ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR group). The other seven pigs underwent chordal severing to induce leaflet prolapse simulating degenerative mitral regurgitation (DMR group). Changes in LA volume and function were assessed at baseline, 1 mo, and 3 mo using echocardiography and hemodynamic evaluations. Histopathological assessments were conducted to evaluate LA hypertrophy and fibrosis. At 3 mo, quantitative MR severity was comparable and severe in both groups. Despite the similar degree of MR, minimum LA volume index increased significantly more in the IMR group (IMR: 11.9 ? 6.4 to 73.2 ? 6.4 mL/m2, DMR: 10.7 ? 6.4 to 29.5 ? 6.4 mL/m2, Pinteraction = 0.004). Meanwhile, increase in maximum LA volume index was similar between the groups, resulting in lower LA emptying function in the IMR group (IMR: 60.1 ? 3.1 to 29.4 ? 3.1%; DMR: 62.4 ? 3.1 to 58.2 ? 3.1%, Pinteraction = 0.0003). LA reservoir strain assessed by echocardiography was also significantly lower in the IMR group. Histological analyses revealed increased LA cellular hypertrophy and fibrosis in the IMR group. In conclusion, ischemic MR is associated with aggressive remodeling and reduced emptying function compared with the MR due to leaflet prolapse. Earlier intervention might be necessary for ischemic MR to prevent LA remodeling. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show different LA structural and functional remodeling patterns between ischemic MR and MR due to leaflet prolapse. Severe ischemic MR was accompanied by extensive LA remodeling, which may be associated with poor clinical outcomes. Our data suggest that detailed structural and functional LA remodeling assessment is important for managing IMR and to determine the presence of LA ischemia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)H914-H923
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • Fibrosis
  • Heart failure
  • Hypertrophy
  • Left atrial ischemia
  • Left atrial remodeling


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