Impact of Incomplete Revascularization on Long-Term Outcomes Following Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Lorenzo Azzalini, Luciano Candilio, Soledad Ojeda, Joseph Dens, Alessio La Manna, Susanna Benincasa, Barbara Bellini, Francisco Hidalgo, Jorge Chavarría, Joren Maeremans, Giacomo Gravina, Eligio Miccichè, Guido D'Agosta, Giuseppe Venuti, Corrado Tamburino, Manuel Pan, Mauro Carlino, Antonio Colombo

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14 Scopus citations


We aimed to evaluate the impact of incomplete revascularization (ICR) on long-term outcomes of patients undergoing chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Consecutive patients undergoing CTO PCI at 4 centers were included. Baseline SYNTAX score (bSS: low [≤ 22], intermediate [>22 and <33], high [≥33]), residual SYNTAX score (rSS: 0, >0 and ≤8, >8), and SYNTAX revascularization index (SRI: 100 × (bSS–rSS)/bSS: 100%, 50% to 99%, <50%) were calculated. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs; cardiac death, any myocardial infarction, any revascularization) on follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of MACEs. Overall, 686 patients were included (low bSS: n = 437; intermediate bSS: n = 187; high bSS: n = 62). Occlusion complexity, crossing strategies, and procedural success rates were similar across groups. The degree of ICR increased with higher bSS categories (rSS was 2.5 ± 4.7 in low vs 6.2 ± 9.3 in intermediate vs 9.1 ± 12.2 in high bSS, p <0.001). The SRI followed a similar pattern. Median follow-up was 781 (369 to 1,217) days. Three-year MACE rates increased with higher bSS and rSS, and decreasing SRI categories (bSS: low 19.4% vs intermediate 25.9% vs high 33.3%, p = 0.02), which was driven by a higher incidence of repeat revascularization. Compared with an rSS = 0, both an rSS >0 and ≤8 (hazard ratio 2.06, p = 0.004) and an rSS >8 (hazard ratio 3.19, p <0.001) were independent predictors of MACEs. Similar findings were observed when the SRI was entered in a separate model. In conclusion, even a mild degree of ICR is associated with a higher incidence of MACEs on long-term follow-up after CTO PCI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1138-1148
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - 15 May 2018
Externally publishedYes


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