Impact of ethnicity on antiplatelet treatment regimens for bleeding reduction in acute coronary syndromes: a systematic review and pre-specified subgroup meta-analysis

Mattia Galli, Renzo Laborante, Giovanni Occhipinti, Andea Zito, Luigi Spadafora, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Roberto Nerla, Fausto Castriota, Domenico D'Amario, Davide Capodanno, Young Hoon Jeong, Takeshi Kimura, Roxana Mehran, Dominick J. Angiolillo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Aims Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing bleeding reduction strategies using antiplatelet treatment regimens (BRATs) in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have shown promising results, but the generalizability of these findings may be significantly influenced by the ethnicity of the patients enrolled, given that East Asian (EA) patients show different ischaemic-bleeding risk profile compared to non-EA patients. Methods and RCTs comparing a BRAT vs. standard 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with ACS undergoing results percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were selected. The primary efficacy endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) as defined in each trial and the primary safety endpoint was minor or major bleeding. Twenty-six RCTs testing seven different BRATs were included. The only strategy associated with a trade-off in MACE was 'upfront unguided de-escalation' in the subgroup of non-EAs (risk ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.24). All but aspirin monotherapy-based strategies (i.e. 'short and very short DAPT followed by aspirin') were associated with reduced bleeding compared with standard DAPT in both EA and non-EA patients. There were no significant differences between subgroups, but the lack of RCTs in some of the included strategies and the difference in the certainty of evidence between EA and non-EA patients revealed that the evidence in support of different BRATs in ACS undergoing PCI is influenced by ethnicity. Moreover, absolute risk reduction estimation revealed that some BRATs might be more effective than others in reducing bleeding according to ethnicity. Conclusion The majority of BRATs are associated with reduced bleeding without any trade-off in hard ischaemic endpoints regardless of ethnicity. However, the supporting evidence and relative safety profiles of different BRATs might be significantly affected by ethnicity, which should be taken into account in clinical practice. Study This study is registered in PROSPERO.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-169
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2024


  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • Bleeding
  • De-escalation
  • Dual antiplatelet therapy
  • East Asian
  • Ethnicity
  • Shortening


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