Impact of Bleeding Risk and Inflammation on Cardiovascular Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Manish Vinayak, Davide Cao, Richard Tanner, Anoop N. Koshy, Serdar Farhan, Birgit Vogel, Samantha Sartori, Yihan Feng, Vishal Dhulipala, Ayush Arora, George D. Dangas, Annapoorna S. Kini, Samin K. Sharma, Roxana Mehran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Markers of systemic inflammation, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), have been associated with the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Whether this risk varies according to the presence of high bleeding risk (HBR) conditions is unclear. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of systemic inflammation, as measured by hsCRP levels and cardiovascular outcomes in patients stratified by HBR status following PCI. Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing PCI between 2012 and 2019 with baseline hsCRP levels were included. High hsCRP was defined as >3 mg/L, and HBR was defined per the Academic Research Consortium HBR criteria. The primary outcome was MACCE, including all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 1 year. All bleeding was assessed as a secondary outcome. Results: A total of 15,150 patients were included, and 40.4% (n = 6,125) qualified as HBR. The adjusted risk for MACCE was consistently higher in patients with high hsCRP in both HBR (adjusted HR [aHR]: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.18-1.87) and non-HBR (aHR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.31-2.66) subgroups, with no interaction between HBR status and hsCRP level (Pinteraction = 0.26). Conversely, although bleeding risk was higher in the HBR cohort, hsCRP did not predict the occurrence of bleeding in either the HBR (aHR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.82-1.31) or the non-HBR (aHR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.71-1.39) subgroup (Pinteraction = 0.539). Conclusions: Elevated hsCRP at the time of PCI is associated with a higher risk for ischemic but not bleeding events, irrespective of HBR status.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)345-355
Number of pages11
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number3
StatePublished - 12 Feb 2024


  • high bleeding risk
  • hsCRP
  • inflammation


Dive into the research topics of 'Impact of Bleeding Risk and Inflammation on Cardiovascular Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this