Impact of assuming a circular orifice on flow error through elliptical regurgitant orifices: computational fluid dynamics and in vitro analysis of proximal flow convergence

Jeesoo Lee, Sumeet S. Mitter, Lowie Van Assche, Hyungkyu Huh, Gregory J. Wagner, Erik Wu, Alex J. Barker, Michael Markl, James D. Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Grounded in hydrodynamic theory, proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) is a simplistic and practical technique widely used to quantify valvular regurgitation flow. PISA provides a relatively reasonable, though slightly underestimated flow rate for circular orifices. However, for elliptical orifices frequently seen in functional mitral regurgitation, PISA underestimates the flow rate. Based on data obtained with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and in vitro experiments using systematically varied orifice parameters, we hypothesized that flow rate underestimation for elliptical orifices by PISA is predictable and within a clinically acceptable range.We performed 45 CFD simulations with varying orifice areas 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 cm2, orifice aspect ratios 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 5:1, and 10:1, and peak velocities (Vmax) 400, 500 and 600 cm/s. The ratio of computed effective regurgitant orifice area to true effective area (EROAC/EROA) against the ratio of aliasing velocity to peak velocity (VA/Vmax) was analyzed for orifice shape impact. Validation was conducted with in vitro imaging in round and 3:1 elliptical orifices.Plotting EROAC/EROA against VA/Vmax revealed marginal flow underestimation with 2:1 and 3:1 elliptical axis ratios against a circular orifice (< 10% for 8% VA/Vmax), rising to ≤ 35% for 10:1 ratio. In vitro modeling confirmed CFD findings; there was a 8.3% elliptical EROA underestimation compared to the circular orifice estimate.PISA quantification for regurgitant flow through elliptical orifices produces predictable, but generally small, underestimation deemed clinically acceptable for most regurgitant orifices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)307-318
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Volume39
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Keywords

  • Color Doppler echocardiography
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Elliptical orifice
  • In vitro
  • Mitral regurgitation
  • Proximal isovelocity surface area

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