Immunosuppression in liver and intestinal transplantation

Jan P. Lerut, Gabriel E. Gondolesi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Immunosuppression handling plays a key role in the early and long-term results of transplantation. The development of multiple immunosuppressive drugs led to numerous clincial trials searching to reach the ideal regimen. Due to heterogeneity of the studied patient cohorts and flaws in many, even randomized controlled, study designs, the answer still stands out. Nowadays triple-drug immunosuppression containing a calcineurin inhibitor (preferentially tacrolimus), an antimetabolite (using mycophenolate moffettil or Azathioprine) and short-term steroids with or without induction therapy (using anti-IL2 receptor blocker or anti-lymphocytic serum) is the preferred option in both liver and intestinal transplantation. This chapter aims, based on a critical review of the definitions of rejection, corticoresistant rejection and standard immunosuppression to give some reflections on how to reach an optimal immunosuppressive status and to conduct trials allowing to draw solid conclusions. Endpoints of future trials should not anymore focus on biopsy proven, acute and chronic, rejection but also on graft and patient survival. Correlation between early- and long-term biologic, immunologic and histopathologic findings will be fundamental to reach in much more patients the status of operational tolerance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101767
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Gastroenterology
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Acute rejection
  • Chronc rejection
  • Clinical studies
  • Clinical trial
  • Immunosuppression
  • Intestinal transplantation
  • Liver biopsy
  • Liver transplantation
  • Tolerance


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