Immunodominance hierarchy after seasonal influenza vaccination

Laura Sánchez-de Prada, Iván Sanz-Muñoz, Raúl Ortiz de Lejarazu, José María Eiros, Adolfo García-Sastre, Teresa Aydillo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Current influenza vaccines elicit humoral immune responses against the haemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza viruses. Different antigenic sites have been identified in the HA head as the main target of haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies (Sb, Sa, Cb, Ca1 and Ca2). To determine immunodominance (ID) of each site, we performed HAI assays against a panel of mutant viruses, each one lacking one of the classically defined antigenic sites and compared it to wild type (Wt). Agglutinating antibodies were measured before and after vaccination in two different regimens: Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine (QIV) in young adults; or Adjuvanted Trivalent influenza Vaccine (ATIV) in elderly. Our results showed abs before vaccination were significantly reduced against all antigenic sites in the elderly and only against Sb and Ca2 in young adults compared to the Wt. Humoral response to vaccination was significantly reduced against all viruses compared to the Wt for the ATIV and only against Sb and Ca2 for the QIV. The strongest reduction was observed in all cases against Sb followed by Ca2. We concluded that ID profile was clearly dominated by Sb followed by Ca2. Additionally, the antibody response evolved with age, increasing the response towards less immunodominant epitopes of HA head. Adjuvants can positively influence ID hierarchy broadening responses towards multiple antigenic sites of HA head.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2670-2679
Number of pages10
JournalEmerging Microbes and Infections
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022


  • Immunodominance
  • adjuvants
  • hemagglutinin
  • influenza
  • vaccines


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