Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Cancer: Success versus Limitations

Amit Sarder, Md Babu Mia, Antara Sarkar, Chanchal Mandal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The immune system possesses the capability to identify tumor cells and eradicate early malignant tumor cells. Thus, activating the immune system of cancer patients provides great therapeutic benefits. Inhibitory T-cell immune checkpoints play a vital role in tumor immune escape. Thus, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have attracted attention in cancer immunotherapy. In ICI therapy, the therapeutic targets are the expressed immune checkpoints of T cells. Immune checkpoints induce T-cell dysfunction in cancer. However, ICIs or immunomodulators restore the antitumor actions of cytotoxic T cells by blocking immune checkpoints. ICIs have become desirable treatment options because of their broad range of activities and response rates ranging from 15% to 90% in several cancer types. Generally, ICIs also have favorable toxicity profiles. This paper will first delve deeper into the best-known immune checkpoints and then review ICIs that are attractive treatment options in immunotherapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5455-5464
Number of pages10
JournalBiomedical Research and Therapy
Issue number12
StatePublished - 31 Dec 2022


  • Cancer
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor
  • Immunotherapy
  • T-cell
  • Tumor


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