Immune checkpoint blockade in HIV

Celine Gubser, Chris Chiu, Sharon R. Lewin, Thomas A. Rasmussen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically improved life expectancy for people with HIV (PWH) and helps to restore immune function but is not curative and must be taken lifelong. Achieving long term control of HIV in the absence of ART will likely require potent T cell function, but chronic HIV infection is associated with immune exhaustion that persists even on ART. This is driven by elevated expression of immune checkpoints that provide negative signalling to T cells. In individuals with cancer, immune checkpoint blockade augments tumour-directed T-cell responses resulting in significant clinical cures. There is therefore high interest if ICB can contribute to HIV cure or remission by reversing HIV-latency and/or drive recovery of HIV-specific T-cells. We here review recent evidence on the role of immune checkpoints in persistent HIV infection and discuss the potential for employing immune checkpoint blockade as a therapeutic approach to target HIV persistence on ART.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103840
StatePublished - Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • HIV
  • Immunotherapy


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