Background: The efficacy of psychiatric DBS is thought to be driven by the connectivity of stimulation targets with mood-relevant fronto-temporal networks, which is typically evaluated using diffusion-weighted tractography. Objective: Leverage intracranial electrophysiology recordings to better predict the circuit-wide effects of neuromodulation to white matter targets. We hypothesize strong convergence between tractography-predicted structural connectivity and stimulation-induced electrophysiological responses. Methods: Evoked potentials were elicited by single-pulse stimulation to two common DBS targets for treatment-resistant depression – the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) and ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VCVS) – in two patients undergoing DBS with stereo-electroencephalographic (sEEG) monitoring. Evoked potentials were compared with predicted structural connectivity between DBS leads and sEEG contacts using probabilistic, patient-specific diffusion-weighted tractography. Results: Evoked potentials and tractography showed strong convergence in both patients in orbitofrontal, ventromedial prefrontal, and lateral prefrontal cortices for both SCC and VCVS stimulation targets. Low convergence was found in anterior cingulate (ACC), where tractography predicted structural connectivity from SCC targets but produced no evoked potentials during SCC stimulation. Further, tractography predicted no connectivity to ACC from VCVS targets, but VCVS stimulation produced robust evoked potentials. Conclusion: The two connectivity methods showed significant convergence, but important differences emerged with respect to the ability of tractography to predict electrophysiological connectivity between SCC and VCVS to regions of the mood-related network. This multimodal approach raises intriguing implications for the use of tractography in surgical targeting and provides new data to enhance our understanding of the network-wide effects of neuromodulation.
- Evoked potentials