Imaging Planar Cell Polarity Proteins in Xenopus Neuroectoderm

Olga Ossipova, Pamela Mancini, Sergei Y. Sokol

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to coordinated cell polarization in the plane of the tissue. Genetic studies in Drosophila identified several core PCP genes, whose products function together in a signaling pathway that regulates cell shape, epithelial tissue organization and remodeling during morphogenesis. PCP is detected by the asymmetric distribution of core PCP proteins at different borders of epithelial cells. Believed to be critical for signaling, this segregation is studied by a variety of techniques, such as direct immunostaining and imaging of fluorescent PCP protein fusions or fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). All of the above techniques can be applied to the analysis of the Xenopus neural plate to study the dynamics of tissue polarization, making this system one of the best vertebrate PCP models. This chapter describes how to image PCP proteins in Xenopus neuroectoderm for both fixed and live samples. These robust cellular techniques will contribute to mechanistic studies of PCP in vertebrate embryos.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages15
StatePublished - 2022

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Immunostaining
  • Live imaging
  • Neurulation
  • PCP
  • Prickle3
  • Vangl2


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