Introduction: IgG anti-apolipoprotein A-1 (IgG anti-apoA-1) antibodies are present in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may link inflammatory disease activity and the increased risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in these patients. We carried out a rigorous analysis of the associations between IgG anti-apoA-1 levels and disease activity, drug therapy, serology, damage, mortality and CVD events in a large British SLE cohort. Methods: Serum IgG anti-apoA-1 levels were measured in 100 healthy controls to define a cut-off for positivity. In 499 patients with SLE we obtained the earliest stored serum sample from their disease course and measured IgG anti-apoA-1 level. We then examined associations between IgG anti-apoA-1 positivity in early disease and the development of damage, CVD or death over a mean follow-up period of 12.1 years in these patients. In a separate study, we measured IgG anti-apoA-1 levels in 397 samples taken longitudinally from 49 patients with SLE over a mean period of 89 months of fluctuating disease activity and carried out multi-variable analysis to examine the demographic, serological, disease activity and treatment factors associated with IgG anti-apoA-1 level over time. Results: In the longitudinal study, IgG anti-apoA-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with persistently active disease, those on high dose corticosteroid and those not taking hydroxychloroquine. Of the 499 subjects who had early disease IgG anti-apoA-1 levels measured, 135 (27%) were positive. However, we found no convincing associations between early IgG anti-apoA-1 positivity and development of damage, mortality or CVD. Conclusions: IgG anti-apoA-1 developed early in a quarter of our patients with SLE, but this had no major impact on subsequent clinical outcomes. However, levels of IgG anti-apoA-1 vary over time and are associated with disease activity, treatment with high dose corticosteroid and not taking hydroxychloroquine.