Background: Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common spinal disorder in the pediatric population. The goals of treatment for pediatric idiopathic scoliosis are to correct deformity, prevent curve progression, restore trunk symmetry and balance, and minimize pain and morbidity. Surgical treatment has advanced significantly, from the advent of segmental pedicle screw instrumentation several decades ago to the recent development of robotic-assisted surgery and growth-modulating fusionless surgery. The objective of the present study was to review the reported data on emerging techniques in the surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in children and adolescents. Methods: The PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases were used to identify studies that had examined new emerging techniques in the surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in children and adolescents. Results: Major developments in the surgical techniques for pediatric idiopathic scoliosis have included robotic-assisted pedicle screw placement, vertebral body stapling, vertebral body tethering, magnetically controlled growing rods, ApiFix (not currently approved for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration), and sublaminar polyester bands. Such growth-modulating fusionless surgical techniques have received increasing attention in recent years, especially for the younger pediatric scoliosis population with significant growth potential remaining. Conclusions: Various emerging techniques in the surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in children and adolescents have demonstrated promising results in the reported data thus far. However, longer term prospective studies with larger cohorts are necessary to better evaluate their safety and efficacy.
- Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
- Pediatric spine