Identification of PMF1 methylation in association with bladder cancer progression

Ainel Aleman, Virginia Cebrian, Miguel Alvarez, Virginia Lopez, Esteban Orenes, Lidia Lopez-Serra, Ferran Algaba, Joaquin Bellmunt, Antonio Lopez-Beltrán, Pilar Gonzalez-Peramato, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Javier García, Javier Garcíadel Muro, Manel Esteller, Marta Sánchez-Carbayo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Purpose: Polyamines are important regulators of cell growth and death. The polyamine modulated factor-1 (PMF-1) is involved in polyamine homeostasis. After identifying an enriched CpG island encompassing the PMF1 promoter, we aimed at evaluating the clinical relevance of PMF1 methylation in bladder cancer. Experimental Design: The epigenetic silencing of PMF1 by hypermethylation was tested in bladder cancer cells (n = 11) after azacytidine treatment. PMF1 methylation status was evaluated in 507 bladder tumors and 118 urinary specimens of bladder cancer patients and controls. PMF1 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays containing bladder tumors for which PMF1 methylation was assessed (n =218). Results: PMF1 hypermethylation was associated with gene expression loss, being restored in vitro by a demethylating agent. An initial set of 101 primary frozen bladder tumors served to identify PMF1 hypermethylation in 88.1% of the cases. An independent set of 406 paraffin-embedded tumors also revealed a high PMF1 methylation rate (77.6%). PMF1 methylation was significantly associated with increasing stage (P = 0.025). Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that PMF1 methylation was associated with cytoplasmic PMF1 expression loss (P = 0.032). PMF1 protein expression patterns were significantly associated with stage (P < 0.001), grade (P < 0.001), and poor overall survival using univariate (P < 0.001) and multivariate (P = 0.011) analyses. Moreover, PMF1 methylation in urinary specimens distinguished bladder cancer patients from controls (area under the curve = 0.800). Conclusion: PMF1 was identified to be epigenetically modified in bladder cancer. The association of PMF1 methylation with tumor progression and its diagnostic ability using urinary specimens support including PMF1 assessment for the clinical management of bladder cancer patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8236-8243
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Issue number24
StatePublished - 15 Dec 2008
Externally publishedYes


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