ICD and DSM: Neuroplasticity and staging are still missing

Stefano Pallanti

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The two main diagnostic systems, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), have undergone a number of revisions since their first editions: whereas the fifth edition of the DSM has been published in 2013, the eleventh revision of the ICD is expected by 2018. Although the process of harmonization between the 2 systems is still a debated topic, the forthcoming revision of the ICD is seemingly converging toward the DSM approach in regard to the reclassification of a number of disorders. Nevertheless, the 2 systems still exhibit considerable differences, partly due to their different purposes, development and revision processes, and target audiences. Furthermore, while alternative and innovative classification approaches are emerging with the aim of integrating the latest findings from neuroscience and genomics, both the DSM and ICD still fail to incorporate core concepts such as the clinical staging of psychiatric disorders and "neuroprogression," as well as an adequate consideration of endophenotypes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-278
Number of pages3
JournalCNS Spectrums
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Classification
  • DSM
  • ICD
  • nosology


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