Hysterosalpingography (HSG) has become a commonly performed examination due to recent advances and improvements in, as well as the increasing popularity of, reproductive medicine. HSG plays an important role in the evaluation of abnormalities related to the uterus and fallopian tubes. Uterine abnormalities that can be detected at HSG include congenital anomalies, polyps, leiomyomas, surgical changes, synechiae, and adenomyosis. Tubal abnormalities that can be detected include tubal occlusion, salpingitis isthmica nodosum, polyps, hydrosalpinx, and peritubal adhesions. Some complications can occur with HSG - most notably, bleeding and infection - and awareness of the possible complications of HSG is essential. Nevertheless, HSG remains a valuable tool in the evaluation of the uterus and fallopian tubes. Radiologists should become familiar with HSG technique and the interpretation of HSG images.