Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: State-of-the-art review, with focus on the management of outflow obstruction

J. C. Kovacic, D. W.M. Muller

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Significant advances in our understanding and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have been made in the last decade, as the complex genetics and phenotype-genotype correlations that characterize the disease are gradually unravelled. The well-described clinical heterogeneity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is now understood to be based on profound genetic variability, with at least 10 genes and over 150 mutations implicated. Several new therapeutic tools have entered clinical practice. The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is now strongly indicated in those at high risk of sudden arrhythmic death. Our ability to abort sudden death in this subgroup has placed added emphasis on risk stratification in newly diagnosed patients. New procedures have also been developed for the relief of outflow obstruction in patients with refractory symptoms and a significant subaortic outflow gradient. Although not as efficacious as the 'gold-standard' surgical myectomy-myotomy, dual-chamber pacemaker implantation can be of modest benefit in select patients. Percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation is an emerging catheter-based procedure for the relief of left ventricular outflow obstruction. Long-term follow-up data are still awaited. However, intermediate-term results suggest equivalent efficacy to surgical myectomy-myotomy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)521-529
Number of pages9
JournalInternal Medicine Journal
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
  • Outflow obstruction
  • Percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation


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