Hypertension in older adults: Assessment, management, and challenges

Estefania Oliveros, Hena Patel, Stella Kyung, Setri Fugar, Alan Goldberg, Nidhi Madan, Kim A. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

152 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hypertension in older adults is related to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, such as heart failure, stroke, myocardial infarction, and death. The global burden of hypertension is increasing due to an aging population and increasing prevalence of obesity, and is estimated to affect one third of the world's population by 2025. Adverse outcomes in older adults are compounded by mechanical hemodynamic changes, arterial stiffness, neurohormonal and autonomic dysregulation, and declining renal function. This review highlights the current evidence and summarizes recent guidelines on hypertension, pertaining to older adults. Management strategies for hypertension in older adults must consider the degree of frailty, increasingly complex medical comorbidities, and psycho-social factors, and must therefore be individualized. Non-pharmacological lifestyle interventions should be encouraged to mitigate the risk of developing hypertension, and as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the need for medications. Pharmacological therapy with diuretics, renin-angiotensin system blockers, and calcium channel blockers have all shown benefit on cardiovascular outcomes in older patients. Given the economic and public health burden of hypertension in the United States and globally, it is critical to address lifestyle modifications in younger generations to prevent hypertension with age.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-107
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Cardiology
Volume43
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • antihypertensive agents
  • blood pressure monitoring
  • geriatrics
  • hypertension
  • older adult

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