Hydroxyproline stimulates inflammation and reprograms macrophage signaling in a rat kidney stone model

Parveen Kumar, Zhengqin Yang, Jeremie M. Lever, Miranda D. Chávez, Huma Fatima, David K. Crossman, Craig L. Maynard, James F. George, Tanecia Mitchell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Meals rich in oxalate are associated with calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stone disease. Hydroxy-L-proline (HLP) is an oxalate precursor found in milk and collagen-containing foods. HLP has been shown to induce CaOx crystal formation in rodents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HLP induced oxalate levels on inflammation and renal leukocytes during crystal formation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6–8 weeks old) were fed a control diet containing no oxalate for 3 days before being randomized to continue the control diet or 5% HLP for up to 28 days. Blood, 24 h urine, and kidneys were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, or 28. Urinary oxalate levels, crystal deposition, and renal macrophage markers were evaluated using ion chromatography-mass spectrometry, immunohistochemistry, and qRT-PCR. Renal leukocytes were assessed using flow cytometry and RNA-sequencing. HLP feeding increased urinary oxalate levels and renal crystal formation in animals within 7 days. HLP also increased renal macrophage populations on Days 14 and 28. Transcriptome analysis revealed that renal macrophages from animals fed HLP for 7 days were involved in inflammatory response and disease, stress response to LPS, oxidative stress, and immune cell trafficking. Renal macrophages isolated on Day 14 were involved in cell-mediated immunological pathways, ion homeostasis, and inflammatory response. Collectively, these findings suggest that HLP-mediated oxalate levels induce markers of inflammation, leukocyte populations, and reprograms signaling pathways in macrophages in a time-dependent manner. Additional studies investigating the significance of oxalate on renal macrophages could aid in our understanding of kidney stone formation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number166442
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Hydroxy-L-proline
  • Kidney stones
  • Macrophages
  • Monocytes
  • Oxalate


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