Viral genomes encode transcriptional regulators that alter the expression of viral and host genes. Despite an emerging role in human diseases, a thorough annotation of human viral transcriptional regulators (vTRs) is currently lacking, limiting our understanding of their molecular features and functions. Here, we provide a comprehensive catalog of 419 vTRs belonging to 20 different virus families. Using this catalog, we characterize shared and unique cellular genes, proteins, and pathways targeted by particular vTRs and discuss the role of vTRs in human disease pathogenesis. Our study provides a unique and valuable resource for the fields of virology, genomics, and human disease genetics.