Background The chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab is effective in steroid-dependent and calcineurin inhibitor–dependent forms of nephrotic syndrome, but many patients relapse at 1 year. Because ofatumumab, a fully human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has a more extended binding site and higher affinity to CD20 compared with rituximab, it might offer superior efficacy in these patients. Methods We designed a single-center randomized clinical trial to compare the long-term efficacy of ofatumumab versus rituximab in children and young adults with nephrotic syndrome maintained in remission with prednisone and calcineurin inhibitors. We randomized 140 children and young adults (aged 2–24 years) to receive intravenous ofatumumab (1.50 mg/1.73 m2) or rituximab (375 mg/m2). After infusions, oral drugs were tapered and withdrawn within 60 days. The primary outcome was relapse at 1 year, which was analyzed following the intent-to-treat principle. The secondary endpoint was relapse within 24 months from infusion, on the basis of urine dipstick and confirmed by a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio <200. Results At 12 months, 37 of 70 (53%) participants who received ofatumumab experienced relapse versus 36 of 70 (51%) who received rituximab (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.55 to 2.06). At 24 months, 53 of 70 (76%) participants who received ofatumumab experienced relapse, versus 46 of 70 (66%) who received rituximab (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8 to 3.3). The two groups exhibited comparable B cell subpopulation reconstitution and did not differ in adverse events. Conclusions A single dose of ofatumumab was not superior to a single dose of rituximab in maintaining remission in children with steroid-dependent and calcineurin inhibitor–dependent nephrotic syndrome.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN|
|State||Published - Oct 2021|