2 Scopus citations


The potential of commensal bacteria to modulate host immunity remains largely uncharacterized, largely due to the vast number of strains that comprise the human gut microbiota. We have developed a screening platform to measure the innate immune responses of myeloid cells to 277 bacterial strains isolated from the gut microbiota of healthy individuals and those with inflammatory bowel diseases. The innate immune responses to gut-derived bacteria are as strong as those toward pathogenic bacteria, and they vary from phylum to strain. Myeloid cells differentially rely upon innate receptors TLR2 or TLR4 to sense taxa, with differential sensing of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria that predict in vivo functions. These innate immune responses can be modeled using combinations of up to 8 Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Furthermore, the immunogenicity of strains is stable over time and following fecal microbiota transplantation into new human recipients. Collectively, this high-throughput approach provides an insight into how commensal microorganisms shape innate immune phenotypes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1481-1498.e5
JournalCell Host and Microbe
Issue number10
StatePublished - 12 Oct 2022


  • TLR2
  • TLR4
  • Treg
  • dendritic cell
  • fecal microbiota transplantation
  • host-microbe
  • innate immunity
  • macrophage
  • microbiome


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