How Do Symptoms Change for Patients in the Last Days/Hours of Life?

Spencer Christensen, Lindsay A. Dow

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


As patients enter the last days and hours of life, a new set of questions, concerns, and symptoms may arise. Providers need to be prepared for this and provide support and reassurance to both patients and their family members. Educating patients and their loved onesfamilies about the natural dying process alleviates unnecessary distress and often allows them to optimize quality time together. Anticipating potential complications at the end of life enables providers to quickly recognize and manage the associated symptoms, thereby minimizing suffering.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEvidence-Based Practice of Palliative Medicine, Second Edition
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9780323847025
ISBN (Print)9780323847032
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • dyspnea
  • end of life care
  • hemorrhage
  • palliative extubation death rattlehospice
  • Symptom management
  • terminal delirium
  • terminal secretions


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