Household Air Pollution and Child Lung Function: The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study

Prince Darko Agyapong, Darby Jack, Seyram Kaali, Elena Colicino, Mohammed Nuhu Mujtaba, Steven N. Chillrud, Musah Osei, Chris Gennings, Oscar Agyei, Patrick L. Kinney, Adolphine Kwarteng, Matthew Perzanowski, Rebecca Kyerewaa Dwommoh Prah, Theresa Tawiah, Kwaku Poku Asante, Alison G. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Rationale: The impact of a household air pollution (HAP) stove intervention on child lung function has been poorly described. Objectives: To assess the effect of a HAP stove intervention for infants prenatally to age 1 on, and exposure-response associations with, lung function at child age 4. Methods: The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study randomized pregnant women to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), improved biomass, or open-fire (control) stove conditions through child age 1. We quantified HAP exposure by repeated maternal and child personal carbon monoxide (CO) exposure measurements. Children performed oscillometry, an effort-independent lung function measurement, at age 4. We examined associations between Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study stove assignment and prenatal and infant CO measurements and oscillometry using generalized linear regression models. We used reverse distributed lag models to examine time-varying associations between prenatal CO and oscillometry. Measurements and Main Results: The primary oscillometry measure was reactance at 5 Hz, X5, a measure of elastic and inertial lung properties. Secondary measures included total, large airway, and small airway resistance at 5 Hz, 20 Hz, and the difference in resistance at 5 Hz and 20 Hz (R5, R20, and R5-20, respectively); area of reactance (AX); and resonant frequency. Of the 683 children who attended the lung function visit, 567 (83%) performed acceptable oscillometry. A total of 221, 106, and 240 children were from the LPG, improved biomass, and control arms, respectively. Compared with control, the improved biomass stove condition was associated with lower reactance at 5 Hz (X5 z-score: β = -0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.39, -0.11), higher large airway resistance (R20 z-score: β = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.23, 0.44), and higher AX (AX z-score: β = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.26), which is suggestive of overall worse lung function. The LPG stove condition was associated with higher X5 (X5 score: β = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.31) and lower small airway resistance (R5-20 z-score: β = -0.15; 95% CI = -0.30, 0.0), which is suggestive of better small airway function. Higher average prenatal CO exposure was associated with higher R5 and R20, and distributed lag models identified sensitive windows of exposure between CO and X5, R5, R20, and R5-20. Conclusions: These data support the importance of prenatal HAP exposure on child lung function. Clinical trial registered with (NCT01335490).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)716-726
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - 15 Mar 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • household air pollution
  • lung function
  • oscillometry
  • prenatal
  • sensitive windows


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