Hepatitis Delta: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

Marcia Lange, Dina Zaret, Tatyana Kushner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection is caused by a unique circular RNA virus that relies on both the hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen and human host polymerases for its transmission and replication. HDV infection can be acquired simultaneously with HBV as a coinfection or as a superinfection in patients already chronically infected with HBV. Chronic HDV is the most severe and progressive form of viral hepatitis–induced liver disease, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the severity of disease and poor clinical outcomes, there are few therapeutic options for the treatment of HDV infection. This article discusses the epidemiology of HDV globally and in the United States, the diagnosis and clinical course of HDV infection, and the current and future therapeutic options for the management of HDV infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)508-520
Number of pages13
JournalGastroenterology and Hepatology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • Hepatitis delta virus
  • bulevirtide
  • epidemiology
  • hepatitis B virus
  • hepatitis delta antigen
  • lonafarnib


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