The third American Associated for the Study of liver Diseases (AASLD)-sponsored Single Topic Conference on hepatic fibrosis was held in June 2006. The conference was both international, with 6 countries represented, and cross-disciplinary, linking the basic molecular and cellular biology of fibrogenic cells to clinical trial design for emerging antifibrotic therapies. The specific goals of the conference were: (1) to consolidate knowledge about the natural history of fibrosis; (2) to clarify potential endpoints and markers; (3) to emphasize new antifibroric targets developed on the basis of advances in basic science; and (4) to understand current critical issues pertaining to clinical trial design. Given the tremendous growth of the field and the constraints of a 2-day format, the selection of speakers was a challenge. A number of topics not included in the oral presentations were featured at poster sessions, lending breadth and depth to the meeting as a whole. Surprising new themes emerged about molecular, clinical, and regulatory aspects of the field, and a consensus emerged that hepatic fibrosis has matured into an integrated discipline that promises to significantly improve the prognosis of patients with fibrosing liver disease.