Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. The impact of HE on the health care system is similarly profound. The number of hospital admissions for HE has increased in the last 10-year period. HE is a huge burden to the patients, care givers, and the health care system. HE represents a “revolving door” with readmission, severely affects care givers, and has effects on cognition that can persists after liver transplant. This article reviews the current literature to discuss the challenges and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to HE.
- Hepatic encephalopathy
- Liver cirrhosis
- Portal hypertension
- Refractory hepatic encephalopathy