Height and BMI in fragile X syndrome: A longitudinal assessment

Tse Hwei Choo, Qing Xu, Dejan Budimirovic, Reymundo Lozano, Amy N Esler, Richard E. Frye, Howard Andrews, Milen Velinov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective: Previously reported data regarding growth parameters in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are inconsistent. A longitudinal analysis of height and BMI in a large number of individuals with FXS was conducted. Methods: Age- and sex-specific z scores for height and BMI of 1,223 individuals with FXS were calculated based on published normative data. Mixed-effect linear regression models were fit separately for males and females, and z scores for height and weight were regressed against age and adjusted for intellectual disability (ID) and psychotropic medication use. Results: Mean height z score for both sexes decreased with age and was lower than normative data. Mean BMI z score was greater than normative data in both sexes, and this disparity increased with age. BMI z score in females was greater for those with moderate or severe ID than those with no or mild ID. Individuals taking antipsychotics had higher BMI z scores than those taking no or other medications; those taking anticonvulsants or stimulants had lower BMI z scores. Conclusions: Individuals with FXS are at elevated risk for overweight and obesity. The risk is higher in individuals taking antipsychotics and among females with severe ID. These findings warrant increased attention to obesity prevention for all individuals with FXS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)743-750
Number of pages8
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


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