Heart transplantation: advances in expanding the donor pool and xenotransplantation

Stephanie Jou, Sean R. Mendez, Jason Feinman, Lindsey R. Mitrani, Valentin Fuster, Massimo Mangiola, Nader Moazami, Claudia Gidea

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Approximately 65 million adults globally have heart failure, and the prevalence is expected to increase substantially with ageing populations. Despite advances in pharmacological and device therapy of heart failure, long-term morbidity and mortality remain high. Many patients progress to advanced heart failure and develop persistently severe symptoms. Heart transplantation remains the gold-standard therapy to improve the quality of life, functional status and survival of these patients. However, there is a large imbalance between the supply of organs and the demand for heart transplants. Therefore, expanding the donor pool is essential to reduce mortality while on the waiting list and improve clinical outcomes in this patient population. A shift has occurred to consider the use of organs from donors with hepatitis C virus, HIV or SARS-CoV-2 infection. Other advances in this field have also expanded the donor pool, including opt-out donation policies, organ donation after circulatory death and xenotransplantation. We provide a comprehensive overview of these various novel strategies, provide objective data on their safety and efficacy, and discuss some of the unresolved issues and controversies of each approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-36
Number of pages12
JournalNature Reviews Cardiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024


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