Head and Neck Region Dermatological Ultraviolet-Related Cancers are Associated with Exfoliation Syndrome in a Clinic-Based Population

Jeff J. Huang, Jack E. Geduldig, Erica B. Jacobs, Tak Yee T. Tai, Sumayya Ahmad, Nisha Chadha, Douglas F. Buxton, Kateki Vinod, Barbara M. Wirostko, Jae H. Kang, Janey L. Wiggs, Robert Ritch, Louis R. Pasquale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: We assessed the relationship between ultraviolet (UV)-associated dermatological carcinomas (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]) and exfoliation syndrome (XFS) or exfoliation glaucoma (XFG). Design: Case-control study. Participants: Between 2019 and 2021, 321 participants and control subjects (XFS or XFG = 98; primary open-angle glaucoma [POAG] = 117; controls = 106; ages 50–90 years) were recruited. Methods: A cross-sectional survey assessing medical history, maximum known intraocular pressure, cup-to-disc ratio, Humphrey visual field 24-2, the propensity to tan or burn in early life, history of BCC or SCC, and XFS or XFG diagnosis. The multivariable models adjusted for age, sex, medical history, eye color, hair color, and likeliness of tanning versus burning at a young age. Main Outcome Measures: History of diagnosed XFS or XFG. Results: Any history of BCC or SCC in the head and neck region was associated with a 2-fold higher risk of having XFS or XFG versus having POAG or being a control subject (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–3.89) in a multivariable-adjusted analysis. We observed a dose-response association in which the chance of having XFS or XFG increased by 67% per head and neck BCC or SCC occurrence (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.09–2.56). When we excluded POAG participants, head and neck BCC or SCC was associated with a 2.8-fold higher risk of XFS or XFG (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.12–7.02), and each additional occurrence had a 2-fold higher risk of XFS or XFG (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.09–3.58). The association between head and neck region BCC or SCC and POAG compared with the control subjects was null (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 0.58–3.48). With BCC or SCC located anywhere on the body, there was a nonsignificantly higher risk of having XFS or XFG compared with having POAG or being a control subject (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 0.88–3.09). Conclusions: Head and neck region BCCs or SCCs are associated with a higher risk of having XFS or XFG. These findings support prior evidence that head and neck UV exposure may be a risk factor for XFS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)663-671
Number of pages9
JournalOphthalmology. Glaucoma
Volume5
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2022

Keywords

  • Basal cell carcinoma
  • Environmental exposures
  • Exfoliation syndrome
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Ultraviolet light

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