Growth factors as immunotherapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease

John E. Mindur, Filip K. Swirski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Growth factors, such as CSFs (colony-stimulating factors), EGFs (epidermal growth factors), and FGFs (fibroblast growth factors), are signaling proteins that control a wide range of cellular functions. Although growth factor networks are critical for intercellular communication and tissue homeostasis, their abnormal production or regulation occurs in various pathologies. Clinical strategies that target growth factors or their receptors are used to treat a variety of conditions but have yet to be adopted for cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on M-CSF (macrophage-CSF), GM-CSF (granulocyte-M-CSF), IL (interleukin)-3, EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), and FGF21 (fibroblast growth factor 21). We first discuss the efficacy of targeting these growth factors in other disease contexts (ie, inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, cancer, or metabolic disorders) and then consider arguments for or against targeting them to treat cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1275-1287
Number of pages13
JournalArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Atherosclerosis
  • Immunotherapy
  • Inflammation
  • Myeloid cells


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