Growth Differentiation Factor-15 as a Predictor of Functional Capacity, Frailty, and Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients With Aortic Stenosis and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

Lauren Basmadjian, Nadia Bouabdallaoui, François Simard, Eileen O'Meara, Anique Ducharme, Jean Lucien Rouleau, Normand Racine, Michel White, Martin G. Sirois, Anita Asgar, Reda Ibrahim, Jean François Dorval, Raoul Bonan, Raymond Cartier, Jessica Forcillo, Ismail El-Hamamsy, Christine Henri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

In aortic stenosis (AS), left ventricular (LV) remodeling often occurs before symptom onset, and early intervention may be beneficial. Risk stratification remains challenging and identification of biomarkers may be useful. We evaluated the association between growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) and known markers of poor prognosis in AS. Baseline plasma GDF-15 and sST2 levels were measured in 70 patients with moderate-severe AS (aortic valve area <1.5 cm2) and preserved LV ejection fraction (>45%). Patients were categorized into “low GDF-15” versus “high GDF-15” and “low sST2” versus “high sST2” groups. Groups were compared for differences in cardiovascular risk factors, 6-minute walk test, 5 m gait speed, cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment), and echocardiographic parameters. Overall, 44% of patients were deemed asymptomatic by New York Heart Association class, 61% had severe AS (aortic valve area <1 cm2) and all patients had preserved LV ejection fraction. GDF-15 levels were not predictive of AS severity. However, high GDF-15 (>1,050 pg/ml) was associated with LV dysfunction as shown by lower indexed stroke volume (p <0.01), worse LV global longitudinal strain (p = 0.04), greater mean E/e′ (p = 0.02) and indexed left atrial volume (p <0.01). It was also associated with decreased functional capacity with shorter 6-minute walk test (p = 0.01) and slower 5 m gait speed (p = 0.02). Associations between sST2 levels and markers of poor prognosis were less compelling. In this study of patients with moderate to severe AS, elevated GDF-15 levels are associated with impaired functional capacity, poorer performance on fragility testing, and LV dysfunction. In conclusion, GDF-15 may integrate these markers of adverse outcomes into a single biomarker of poor prognosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-16
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Volume186
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes

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