Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor significantly decreases density of hippocampal caspase 3-positive nuclei, thus ameliorating apoptosis-mediated damage, in a model of ischaemic neonatal brain injury

Peter Pastuszko, Gregory J. Schears, Joanna Kubin, David F. Wilson, Anna Pastuszko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Ischaemic brain injury is a major complication in patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease, with the hippocampus being a particularly vulnerable region. We hypothesized that neuronal injury resulting from cardiopulmonary bypass and associated circulatory arrest is ameliorated by pretreatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a cytokine and an anti-apoptotic neurotrophic factor. METHODS: In a model of ischaemic brain injury, 4 male newborn piglets were anaesthetized and subjected to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) (cooled to 18°C, DHCA maintained for 60 min, rewarmed and recovered for 8-9 h), while 4 animals received G-CSF (34 μg/kg, intravenously) 2 h prior to the DHCA procedure. At the end of each experiment, the animals were perfused with a fixative, the hippocampus was extracted, cryoprotected, cut and the brain sections were immunoprocessed for activated caspase 3, a pro-apoptotic factor. Immunopositive neuronal nuclei were counted in multiple counting boxes (440 × 330 μm) centred on the CA1 or CA3 hippocampal regions and their mean numbers compared between the different treatment groups and regions. RESULTS: G-CSF pretreatment resulted in significantly lower counts of caspase 3-positive nuclei per counting box in both the CA1 [52.2 ± 9.3 (SD) vs 61.6 ± 8.4, P < 0.001] and CA3 (41.2 ± 6.9 vs 60.4 ± 16.4, P < 0.00002) regions of the hippocampus as compared to DHCA groups. The effects of G-CSF were significant for pyramidal cells of both regions and for interneurons in the CA3 region. CONCLUSIONS: In an animal model of ischaemic brain injury, G-CSF reduces neuronal injury in the hippocampus, thus potentially having beneficial effect on neurologic outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)600-605
Number of pages6
JournalInteractive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Volume25
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Cardiac surgery
  • Caspase 3
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Developing brain
  • Hippocampus

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